Leonard Meyer's Emotion and Meaning in Music. My old paperback copy is falling apart. It tells me it was printed in , and I'm pretty sure I found it that. emotion, engagement and meaning in strong experiences of music performance alexandra lamont keele university, uk abstract this paper explores the emotions. IN RECENT years Leonard Meyer's theory of musical meaning, though now Meyer's theory in his Music and the Emotions: The Philosophical Theories.2 But.
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Introduction. The perception of emotional meaning in music is one of the final events in a communication process. This consists of the transmitting of messages . Emotion and Meaning in Music (Phoenix Books) [Leonard B. Meyer] on site. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Altogether it is a book that should be. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Mar 1, , Laurel Trainor and others published The emotional origins of basis of musical expectations: from probabilities to emotional meaning.
The key findings were that 1 IL rating was frequently rated statistically the same or lower than the corresponding EL rating e.
Physiological arousal, personality and age, as well as musical features tempo, mode, putative emotions also influenced perceived and felt emotion distinctions. A variety of data collection formats were identified, but mostly using rating items. In conclusion, a more systematic use of terminology appears desirable.
Two broad categories, namely matched and unmatched, are proposed as being sufficient to capture the relationships between EL and IL, instead of four categories as suggested by Gabrielsson. Keywords: expressed and felt emotion in music, emotion locus, contagion, normative dissociation, contrast effect, affect valence, literature review The distinction between emotion felt by a listener internal locus of emotion and emotion expressed by a piece of music external locus of emotion has become a firmly established part of research agenda of music psychologists in the last decade.
Since the seminal work of Gabrielsson we have seen evidence that emotion felt in response to music e. The paper is structured as follows.
First, 1 the inclusion criteria and limitations of the review are laid out, 2 some early music psychology research related to emotion locus is presented including an overview of Gabrielsson's paper, followed by 3 a collation of the target literature of this review. Then, 4 the theoretical implications of the literature are discussed, with 5 a proposed reworking of Gabrielsson's locus relationships to accommodate a developed understanding, and to highlight some of the key research questions emerging in the field.
Inclusion criteria and limitations of this review Inclusion criteria The inclusion criteria for the research tabulated for the review are as follows: 1 studies which made a direct comparison between external locus emotion and internal locus emotion in connection with music listening; 2 studies which use the same response regime for both external locus and internal responses; and 3 studies appearing in peer-reviewed journals in the year period of — that is, the decade since Gabrielsson's publication.
Nineteen studies met all three criteria. The reason for excluding studies that have some connection with emotion locus and music are now explained.
Limitation 1: expressed and felt emotion data compatibility When discussion of locus is presented in the research literature on emotion in music, it is most frequently an acknowledgment that a locus distinction exists, but that the study limits the investigation to one locus or the other internal or external , without comparing both. Sometimes the data in each locus are not directly comparable e.
Such studies were not included in the tabulated literature of this review. Thus, studies that could allow comparison of locus by rating of expressed emotion a priori e. The bulk of the a priori rated expressed locus data are found in the well-established music mood induction literature 1. Limitation 3: emotion locus research in non-music research Although an interest in comparing locus in other fields of research can be found—for example, in social reception e. However, some relevant issues from non-music studies are mentioned in this review.
Limitation 4: philosophical issues and mood induction The review is limited to empirical data from music psychology research in which data from each emotion locus felt by listener and expressed by music are gathered and compared.
It should be noted that music psychology has been influenced by ideas about emotion locus that were primarily in the realm of philosophy and aesthetics. This value perspective has relevance in music psychology, particularly when value is operationalized as a variable such as liking some empirical research has provided evidence supporting the spirit of the just cited statements—see, e. Outside such circumstances, the more purely philosophical research will be used to inform the reviewed material, rather than be part of it.
Hence, a limitation of the present review will be to examine exclusively music-psychology literature for excellent aesthetician accounts, see Radford, ; Kivy, , , ; Davies, , ; Robinson, This kind of distinction is covered in non-music research on emotional regulation, which includes protective buffering Langer et al. Such distinctions within internal locus are not reported here because they have not been cited in empirical music perception investigations that meet the inclusion criteria, and do not at first seem to be of relevance because one would imagine that knowing how to behave in front of a piece of music is not relevant in the way that knowing how to behave in front of other people is relevant.
Although this internal locus distinction is not covered in the empirical data of the literature reviewed, it will be relevant in future research for a discussion in non-music contexts, see Gross et al. Again, future empirical studies will be needed to examine the various external locus possibilities, specifically the emotion that the composer s , performer s or other perhaps imaginary listener s are thought to be experiencing according to the perceiver , and whether a further distinction between these other people and the music should be made when considering external locus.
For example, some recent research has considered emotion ratings that others would make about a piece of music as a way of managing possible bias in external locus response. Previous psychological accounts leading up to gabrielsson's publication Pre-review period before accounts by music psychologists demonstrating an awareness of the distinction between felt and expressed emotion are frequent e. Therefore, we focused on music in a minor key and defined it as sad music in this study.
However, this seems unusual. Within emotion psychology, sadness is generally regarded as an unpleasant emotion.
According to the typical dimensional model of emotion suggested by Russell , sadness is located in the position of displeasure and deactivating emotions Russell, In addition, from an approach-avoidance perspective, people should want to avoid sadness. No one would be eager to experience sadness, being such an unpleasant emotion. This begs the question: why do we choose to listen to sad music when it should offer us an unpleasant experience?
Aristotle addressed this question by suggesting the concept of catharsis. If, as he suggested, sad music assuages depression, then it is not surprising that people would prefer sad music.
Our recent study Kawakami et al. We suggested that people's ability to feel pleasure when listening to music that is perceived as sad might be related to a difference between the perception of emotion in the music and the emotion it actually evokes.
There are two types of emotions: perceived and felt. Perceived emotions concern what people perceive objectively, whereas felt emotions concern what people actually experience.
It is possible to determine the affective aspects of a target's expression. We can usually recognize others' emotions using expressed cues including facial expression, tone of voice, and gestures. A similar process occurs when we listen to music, in that we recognize it as happy or sad using cues such as key, tempo, or volume.
Conversely, we experience various emotions other than our objectively perceived emotion. When we look at an angry person, we can usually perceive that the person is angry, but we do not always experience anger ourselves; rather, we often experience fear in response to others' anger.
Of course, when our experienced emotion is identical to our perceived emotion, then felt emotion and perceived emotion coincide. Perceived emotion There are two kinds of emotions: perceived and felt Gabrielsson, Perceived emotion refers to emotion that we perceive or recognize from our surroundings and environments.
For example, when we listen to a piece of music that is being played, we are able to perceive it as being happy or sad. Felt emotion Felt emotion refers to an emotion we actually experience.
Indeed, perceived and felt emotions are identical in many cases. However, our earlier study a suggests that musically trained people experience pleasant emotions while listening to dissonance and music in minor keys despite perceiving them as unpleasant.