by Thomas Hobbes. Search the Leviathan. TABLE OF CONTENTS q INTRODUCTION q CHAPTER I: OF SENSE q CHAPTER II: OF IMAGINATION q CHAPTER. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. 1 Thomas Hobbes's Visual Strategies. 29 horst bredekamp. 2 Leviathan, the Beast of Myth: Medusa, Dionysos, and the Riddle of Hobbes's Sovereign Monster .
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CASTELO BRANCO, Pedro Hermílio Villas Bôas. Invisible versus visible powers in Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan. Rev. Sociol. Polit. [online]. , n, pp Leviatán - Thomas diachentiterto.tk - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil is a book written by Thomas Hobbes.
The Originall of them all, is that which we call Sense; For there is no conception in a mans mind, which hath not at first, totally, or by parts, been begotten upon the organs of Sense. The rest are derived from that originall. To know the naturall cause of Sense, is not very necessary to the business now in hand; and I have els-where written of the same at large.
Nevertheless, to fill each part of my present method, I will briefly deliver the same in this place. The cause of Sense, is the Externall Body, or Object, which presseth the organ proper to each Sense, either immediatly, as in the Tast and Touch; or mediately, as in Seeing, Hearing, and Smelling: which pressure, by the mediation of Nerves, and other strings, and membranes of the body, continued inwards to the Brain, and Heart, causeth there a resistance, or counter-pressure, or endeavour of the heart, to deliver it self: which endeavour because Outward, seemeth to be some matter without.
All which qualities called Sensible, are in the object that causeth them, but so many several motions of the matter, by which it presseth our organs diversly.
Neither in us that are pressed, are they anything els, but divers motions; for motion, produceth nothing but motion. But their apparence to us is Fancy, the same waking, that dreaming. The commonwealth is instituted when all agree in the following manner: I authorise and give up my right of governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of men, on this condition; that thou give up, thy right to him, and authorise all his actions in like manner.
The sovereign has twelve principal rights:  Because a successive covenant cannot override a prior one, the subjects cannot lawfully change the form of government. Because the covenant forming the commonwealth results from subjects giving to the sovereign the right to act for them , the sovereign cannot possibly breach the covenant; and therefore the subjects can never argue to be freed from the covenant because of the actions of the sovereign.
The sovereign exists because the majority has consented to his rule; the minority have agreed to abide by this arrangement and must then assent to the sovereign's actions.
Every subject is author of the acts of the sovereign: hence the sovereign cannot injure any of his subjects and cannot be accused of injustice.
Following this, the sovereign cannot justly be put to death by the subjects. Because the purpose of the commonwealth is peace, and the sovereign has the right to do whatever he thinks necessary for the preserving of peace and security and prevention of discord.
Therefore, the sovereign may judge what opinions and doctrines are averse, who shall be allowed to speak to multitudes, and who shall examine the doctrines of all books before they are published. To prescribe the rules of civil law and property. To be judge in all cases. To make war and peace as he sees fit and to command the army.
To choose counsellors, ministers, magistrates and officers. To reward with riches and honour or to punish with corporal or pecuniary punishment or ignominy. To establish laws about honour and a scale of worth.
Hobbes explicitly rejects the idea of Separation of Powers. In item 6 Hobbes is explicitly in favour of censorship of the press and restrictions on the rights of free speech should they be considered desirable by the sovereign to promote order. Types of commonwealth[ edit ] There are three monarchy , aristocracy and democracy : The difference of Commonwealths consisted in the difference of the sovereign, or the person representative of all and every one of the multitude.
And because the sovereignty is either in one man, or in an assembly of more than one; and into that assembly either every man hath right to enter, or not every one, but certain men distinguished from the rest; it is manifest there can be but three kinds of Commonwealth.
For the representative must needs be one man, or more; and if more, then it is the assembly of all, or but of a part. When the representative is one man, then is the Commonwealth a monarchy; when an assembly of all that will come together, then it is a democracy, or popular Commonwealth; when an assembly of a part only, then it is called an aristocracy.
And only three; since unlike Aristotle he does not sub-divide them into "good" and "deviant": Other kind of Commonwealth there can be none: for either one, or more, or all, must have the sovereign power which I have shown to be indivisible entire. There be other names of government in the histories and books of policy; as tyranny and oligarchy ; but they are not the names of other forms of government, but of the same forms misliked.
For they that are discontented under monarchy call it tyranny; and they that are displeased with aristocracy call it oligarchy: so also, they which find themselves grieved under a democracy call it anarchy, which signifies want of government; and yet I think no man believes that want of government is any new kind of government: nor by the same reason ought they to believe that the government is of one kind when they like it, and another when they mislike it or are oppressed by the governors.
And monarchy is the best, on practical grounds: The difference between these three kinds of Commonwealth consisteth not in the difference of power, but in the difference of convenience or aptitude to produce the peace and security of the people; for which end they were instituted.
And to compare monarchy with the other two, we may observe: first, that whosoever beareth the person of the people, or is one of that assembly that bears it, beareth also his own natural person. And though he be careful in his politic person to procure the common interest, yet he is more, or no less, careful to procure the private good of himself, his family, kindred and friends; and for the most part, if the public interest chance to cross the private, he prefers the private: for the passions of men are commonly more potent than their reason.
From whence it follows that where the public and private interest are most closely united, there is the public most advanced. Now in monarchy the private interest is the same with the public.
The riches, power, and honour of a monarch arise only from the riches, strength, and reputation of his subjects. For no king can be rich, nor glorious, nor secure, whose subjects are either poor, or contemptible, or too weak through want, or dissension, to maintain a war against their enemies; whereas in a democracy, or aristocracy, the public prosperity confers not so much to the private fortune of one that is corrupt, or ambitious, as doth many times a perfidious advice, a treacherous action, or a civil war.
Succession[ edit ] The right of succession always lies with the sovereign. Democracies and aristocracies have easy succession; monarchy is harder: The greatest difficulty about the right of succession is in monarchy: and the difficulty ariseth from this, that at first sight, it is not manifest who is to appoint the successor; nor many times who it is whom he hath appointed.
For in both these cases, there is required a more exact ratiocination than every man is accustomed to use. Because in general people haven't thought carefully. However, the succession is definitely in the gift of the monarch: As to the question who shall appoint the successor of a monarch that hath the sovereign authority Therefore it is manifest that by the institution of monarchy, the disposing of the successor is always left to the judgement and will of the present possessor.
But, it is not always obvious who the monarch has appointed: And for the question which may arise sometimes, who it is that the monarch in possession hath designed to the succession and inheritance of his power However, the answer is: it is determined by his express words and testament; or by other tacit signs sufficient. And this means: By express words, or testament, when it is declared by him in his lifetime, viva voce, or by writing; as the first emperors of Rome declared who should be their heirs.
Note that perhaps rather radically this does not have to be any blood relative: For the word heir does not of itself imply the children or nearest kindred of a man; but whomsoever a man shall any way declare he would have to succeed him in his estate. Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan.
The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Written during the English Civil War — , Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Two Treatises of Government John Locke. Emile Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The Commonwealth of Oceana James Harrington. The History of the Rise, Progress Thomas Clarkson. On Liberty John Stuart Mill.
The Story of Utopias Lewis Mumford. Concerning the Thoughts of man, I will consider them first Singly, and afterwards in Trayne, or dependance upon one another. Singly, they are every one a Representation or Apparence, of some quality, or other Accident of a body without us; which is commonly called an Object. Which Object worketh on the Eyes, Eares, and other parts of mans body; and by diversity of working, produceth diversity of Apparences.